B.Sc. CSIT 7th Semester

Database Architecture and Types

  • A database architecture is a representation of DBMS design.
  •  It helps to design, develop, implement, and maintain the database management system.
  • A DBMS architecture allows dividing the database system into individual components that can be independently modified.
Database architecture

Two-Tier Client Server Architecture

Database architecture
Database architecture
  • The 2-tier architecture is same as basic client-server. 
  • In the two-tier architecture, applications on the client end can directly communicate with the database at the server side. For this interaction, Drivers like: ODBC are used.
  • The user interfaces and application programs are run on the client-side.
  • The server side is responsible to provide the functionalities like: query processing and transaction management.
  • To communicate with the dbms, client-side application establishes a connection with the server side.

Advantages of Two-Tier Architecture

  • Easy maintenance and modification
  • Faster communication

Disadvantage of Two-Tier Architecture

  • Performance will degrade upon increasing users.
  • As client is directly interacting with the database, it might create problems.

Three-Tier Client Server Architecture

Database architecture
  • The 3-tier architecture contains another layer between the client and server. In this architecture, client can’t directly communicate with the server.
  • The application on the client-end interacts with an application server which further communicates with the database system.
  • End user has no idea about the existence of the database beyond the application server. The database also has no idea about any other user beyond the application.
  • The 3-tier architecture is used in case of large web application.


  • It can be upgraded or replaced independently
  • Since the client does not have direct access to the database, it is more secure


  • Difficult to maintain and set-up
  • More complex structure
  • Physical separation of the tiers may affect the performance of the three
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Karina Shakya